Cryotherapy techniques involves performance of one or more freeze-thaw cycles. Thus, heat transfer between the cryogen and tissue occurs followed by tissue damage, vascular stasis and inflammatory response. Upon freezing a certain area with a cryopen, it can be observed how the tissue turns white. Direct mechanisms involve both extracellular and intracellular formation of ice crystals as well as movement of water towards osmotic gradient.
Also, direct impact of cold on protein structure and enzyme systems is significant. Indirect tissue damage mechanisms involve vascular stasis, ischaemia in the tissues and inflammatory and immunological responses.
Assessment Method: Case study or Written Assessment
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